Weekly Photo Challenge: Structure

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Wooden handmade structures…or

natural nature’s structure looks like a rock or a tooth…so called Grandmother’s tooth

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or a concrete structure ( a house) covered with an ivy…combination of infrastructure and nature…

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or flower’s structure

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Any structures could be seen everywhere, depends where we look at.

Thank you for watching and have a great rest of the week.

This is my contribution for The Weekly Photo Challenge this week: “Structure”.

 

 

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The bridge of „Kozja ćuprija“ (Goat’s bridge) near Sarajevo

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There are many legends about how the bridge “Kozja ćuprija” was built. One of the first legends says that this bridge was built by a poor man named Meho. As a child, Meho was orphan. His neighbors took care of him. While Meho studied, he heard various stories about Turkish town Stambol (Istanbul) and its beauties. Meho kept the sheep near the river Miljacka near Sarajevo. He noticed one goat standing in place. In this place, legend says, Meho found several jars with gold. He went to Stambol, finished school, became a pasha. At the place where he found the jars, Meho built the bridge and called it “Kozja Cuprija”.

The second legend is about two brothers who also found treasure in one of the caves near the river Miljacka. One brother built a bridge thanks to the treasure, and another brother built a mosque in Bistrik (Kečedži Sinan’s mosque).

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The Kozja ćuprija is located in the Miljacka River Canyon approximately 4 kilometers east of the old city center of Sarajevo. The road (on which it bordered the river) is the famous Carigrad road, the path that went from Sarajevo towards the eastern parts of the Empire (during the Ottoman rule), all the way to Constantinople.

The Kozja ćuprija is one of the four old bridges that are still preserved in the area of ​​Sarajevo. The other three bridges are the Šeher-Čehaj’s Cuprija, the Latin Cuprija and the Roman Bridge (Plandište near Blažuj).

The Kozja ćuprija Bridge is made of limestone and sapwood. It has one bow with two circular apertures. The length of the bridge is 42 meters, the width is 4.75 meters, and the range of the vault is 17.5 meters.

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The Kozja ćuprija was a place where the emperors of the emperors – Viziers during the Ottoman rule – were welcomed. Every new Vizier had the so-called welcome to the bridge. Before him, all the more visible people in Sarajevo would come out, and a common people would also be gathered because it was one of the most important events for the city. It is also remembered that  some of the brave boys would jump from the bridge to the river Miljacka in honor of the new Vizier, and he would give them money.

Human kindness has lost its character in the 21st century

The old proverb says: “Kind people are the best kind of people. -author unknown”, but it seems that goodness (the highest and most valuable human trait) is completely degraded in the 21st century. The best-known winner of the Nobel Prize for Literature (from Bosnia and Herzegovina), writer Ivo Andric once said: “Goodness knows a lot and goodness can do a lot , and speaks only with a smile.” And he was absolutely right. The Italian historian, Cesare Cantù, said: “Goodness is the only treasure, which is increased by dividing”. The old saying which is also well- known says that “a good people are farthest from afar like the Himalayas.” Many writers and historians felt that good people are the happy people, and goodness is by their opinions the greatest human value and ethical category.

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Let us remember Franklin’s words: “He that has done you a kindness will be more ready to do you another, than he whom you yourself have obliged.” -Benjamin Franklin or the words from the Graet Sophocles: “One who knows how to show and to accept kindness will be a friend better than any possession.”

It seems, however, that during the 21st century, goodness is slowly losing and disappearing. We often wonder: why is that? There is no concrete answer. The fact is that we live in very turbulent times. Human dignity and empathy are slowly disappearing. The human dimension and benevolence towards others are also lost. Moral intelligence has been compromised and we only have the need to see ourselves. That’s why we do not see other people. Although, sometimes we sympathize with others’ troubles and we are selfless. Altruism is, by definition, complete and unconditionally  love for others. If we often remember the things that hurt us, it means that it is only a matter of time when the need to react to them will be violent and intolerable.

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Goodness is often associated with material giving in the 21st century, which is a wrong approach. A man can help others in trouble in a million other ways. The spectrum of manifesting human goodness is enormous. A Swiss poet, Gottfried Keller, said: “A few good people make the room warm, without a stove, roof and windows”. However, in order for people to do things on a proper way and to help others, they must have a kind of stuff to help them with. A poor man can not help a poor man a lot. There are things that can not be spend on sharing. In other words, human knowledge. A smart person can help another person by educating or learning that person something new. That person will not lose any of its knowledge (of its wealth), because knowledge can not be spent. You can show goodness and humanity in the same way, by respecting others and by respecting difference, and all those who are different from you. So, a good person can be considered every human being who is selfless, tolerant, honest, and we know that he will not maliciously hurt anyone. We teach goodness all our life and every day we try to be better people, either by learning from our mistakes or unfortunately by mistakes of others. And one of the wisest men in the world, a Greek thinker and philosopher Socrates said that „It is possible not to renounce goodness, nor to stop learning it“. And he was absolutely wright.

Ice cream through history

Ice cream is considered to be the oldest delicacy in the world. The history of ice cream dates back to 3000 years B.C., when the Chinese knew the recipe that ran out of today’s ice cream.

The Roman King Nero (37-68 year B.C.) in ancient Rome during the summer time had snow stored in special pits, which his slaves brought him from the mountains in large bowls. Snow and ice were later used to mix with various fruits and honey, in order to prepare various “ice drinks”.

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In 1292, the famous travel writer and researcher from Croatia (Korčula Island), Marco Polo, wrote about the ice dish from the Kublai-Khan court (today’s Beijing), which is based on milk, chilled water and other ingredients. The courtyard in Italy makes ice cream according to Marco Polo’s recipe. The recipe and the process of making ice cream were a strictly guarded secret.

In 1533, ice cream was also brought to the court of Catherine de Medici, who brought it with her when she married a future French king Henry II (1533), and gave her secret to husband, who passed it to his cooks.

In 1648, the ice cream recourse spread to England, where English King Charles I (1600-1649) served it to his guests at one of the rich royal parties. The King Charles was famous for numerous feasts at his court, where he liked to prepare various culinary surprises for his guests. The guests were amazed and curious because the meal was creamy, sweet, icy and soft, but the chef had to keep silent about the recipe. The chef kept his silence well, because King Charles I gave him a very high salary, so that the ice cream would remain as a royal treat. After King’s death in 1649, the secret of magic sweets was soon discovered.

In 1660, in France, ice cream became available to everyone, because until then it was only eaten by the “elite” of French society.

In 1700, the first ice cream appeared in the United States, which only people from “higher” social classes could eat. It is brought by British colonists.

In 1774, a certain Filip Lenzi delivered delicacies, including ice cream from London to the United States. The same year ice cream in New York could be bought on the street. The business went not only to ice cream manufacturers, but also to manufacturers of boxes in which ice cream was served. The records speak about 70 new types of vessels intended for serving ice cream.

In 1813, ice cream was served on the inauguration dance of The US President James Madison.

In 1846, Ms. Nancy Jonson developed a home-cooking and ice-cream device for using a mixture of ice and salt.

In 1851, the first ice cream manufacturing plant was opened in the United States. Mr. Jacob Fussel founded the company for the industrial manufacture of ice cream in Baltimore. He could produce ice cream in large quantities. That was not enough, because the ice-freezer and ice cream (cooling system) was supposed to be invented that each store should have. By developing and perfecting the cooling system, ice cream production also gradually developed and improved.

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In 1904 in the US state of Missouri, in the city of St. Louis the ice cream in the cornet was invented (until then, ice-cream was served in small metal containers). It was a warm day, and visitors to the Economic show had to cool and refresh on a lot. Ice cream sellers rubbed their hands. The ice cream was  sold into the so-called „Cold refrigerators“. Great traffic eventually created problems for the seller, Charles Menches, who at one point remained without metal ice trays, and had enough raw material to prepare the ice cream. But he succeeded, and his friend Ernest Hamwia, an immigrant from Syria, helped him to solve the problem. He was selling some kind of delicious and crispy pancakes not far from Charles. Charles went to his colleague to take a few of these pancakes and put them in a cornet (cottage) and served ice cream in it. After that, ice cream begins to be packed in cardboard and hard paper trays. The ice cream on a stick is also invented in The USA.

In 1926, a cooling system was invented, and ice cream production was significantly improved and facilitated.

In 1934, Chris Nielson realized his idea of ​​spilling ice cream with chocolate.

In 1984, Ronald Reagan declared the month of July as the national ice-cream month in the United States.

In 2011 in the United Kingdom, ice cream with mother’s milk was served in a confectionery.

Weekly Photo Challenge: Corner

This is my contribution for The Weekly Photo Challenge:  corner .

 

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Any corner between two walls is good to have your

car parked in.

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Any corner of a bench is good to take some rest and enjoy a good weather.

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Any corner of the park with a public drinking water fountain is a great idea, especially if you’re thirsty.

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Even an oval-shaped corner is good for eternal fire, a symbol of Sarajevo.

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And in the corridor between walls between two residential buildings, tenants of these buildings can make a public garden, in which all tenants can enjoy whenever they wish.

Thank you for watching and have a great weekend.

 

The secret of the Egyptian sphinx

The Egyptian sphinx is located approx. 10 km from Cairo in the Egyptian desert and preserves three largest pyramids in Giza (known as the Great Pyramid). The sphinx is made of stone, it has a human head and a body of lion that lies with paws stretched forward.

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The sphinx head is thoroughly made, while the body is only roughly made. The eyes are mysterious and have a mysterious and supreme look toward the desert. The sphinx is approx. 20 meters high and 63 meters long. Historians estimate that the Sphinx’s age is over 5,000 years old. There is a small chapel (between the paws of this figure), where the records of two Egyptian kings were found. According to the records, the Sphinx represents one form of Harmakhis „the god of the sun“ and is made to guard and defend the graveyard around the pyramid. In Egypt, there are other, less sphinxes with heads that represent the characters of the kings. According to ancient Egyptian records, the word “sphinx” means “master.” Many primitive religions considered that kings represent the cunning of different animals and have the power of these animals. The Kings used to wear the skin with different animals on the head in order to have a great power. For the same reason, the Egyptians represented their kings as semi-humans, semi-animals. In Assisi and Greece, the Sphinx’s are represented with wings. In Assyria they had the head of a man, and in Greece the sphinxes were represented with the head of a woman. The most famous legend about the sphinx was created in Greece.

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The legend says: The Sphinx was living on one rock and killed every passenger who would pass through here and failed to solve her riddle. The riddle was: what go on four legs in the morning, on two legs at noon, and at three legs in the evening?. The King Oedipal (a Greek mythology hero) replied that the solution of the puzzle is: a man. Oedipal explained: a man crawls on four legs as a child, as an adult walking on two legs, and as an older person walking with a stick. This answer was the correct answer, but the Sphinx fled from the rock and died.

Stare sarajevske zgrade sa starim fasadama

Fasada svakom objektu daje specifičnost i karakterističnost i odlučujuća je kod prvog susreta drugih s tom kućom ili stambenom zgradom. Stara poslovica kaže da „prvi susret najčešće ostavlja najvažniji dojam“.

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Fasada ili pročelje je lice i odijelo tog objekta, kuće ili zgrade. Stanje fasade govori o održavanju objekta, ali i o korisnicima tog objekta.  Fasada ima svoju estetsku i zaštitnu funkciju koja je važnija. To je pružanje sigurnosti i ugodnosti korisnicima, te zaštita nosive konstrukcije od vanjskih uvjeta i temperaturnih naprezanja. Riječ fasada dolazi od latinske riječi „facies“, koja znači vanjsko pojavljivanje izgleda ili lice. Pročelje kuće ili stambene zgrade u kojoj živite, na neki način, predstavlja i vas, obitelj ili osobu. Nije potpuno svejedno kakvu fasadu imate, zbog očuvanja postojanosti i izdržljivosti objekta, kuće ili zgrade. Fasada je važna i zbog budućih troškova, koji se tiču održavanja i funkcioniranja kuće. U današnje vrijeme, vlasnici obraćaju posebnu pažnju na izbor materijala i vrstu fasade. Izbor materijala je šarolik i veliki, kao i vrste fasada. Danas su česte  fasade od kamena, drveta i aluminijskih panela, postoje i takozvane eternit fasade, stiropor fasade, termo i klasične fasade. Nekada davno, nije bilo tako.  Gradilo se najčešće od drveta i često su kuće i objekti za stanovanje bili bez fasada, odnosno pročelja su bila od cigle. Stoga danas svugdje u svijetu postoje mnogi objekti i stambene zgrade sa starim, oronulim i derutnim fasadama.

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U mnogim sarajevskim naseljima godinama propadaju mnoge stare zaštićene zgrade, jer njihovi vlasnici nemaju novca ili volje da ih obnove. Naime, postoje destine kuća i zgrada iz 18. I 19. stoljeća, sa čijih fasada opadaju dijelovi materijala. Predstavnici lokalnih vlasti najčešće kažu da u budžetu nema novca za spašavanje vrijednih građevina, te da je obnova zgrada i fasada posao vlasnika.

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Znamo li da se u građevinama bez fasadne izolacije velik dio topline gubi upravo kroz zidove, što dovodi do velike potrošnje energije za grijanje, postajemo svjesni da je fasada i termofasada važan dio svakog objekta, kojim možemo reducirati potrošnju toplinske energije i oko 60 %!

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Ostaje da se nadamo da će se preurediti stari stambeni objekti u Sarajevu, uz posebnu pažnju na želje korisnika i uvažavanje pravila struke. Stare sarajevske zgrade sa svojim starim fasadama su više od ukrasa grada, jer govore o povijesti Sarajeva, njegovim korjenima i značaju grada Sarajeva. Osim toga, potrebne su zbog samopoštovanja i putovanja u budućnost. Obnovom fasada na starim sarajevskim zgradama, grad Sarajevo i njegova okolina bi sigurno bili ljepši.